Intellectual Intelligence (IQ) and Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
We often wondered where that type of intelligence is useful for an individual. In these situations that have two types intelligence, that is Intellectual intelligence or IQ (Intellectual Quotient) and Emotional intelligence or EQ (Emotional Quotient). Basically, society put intellectual intelligence more important than emotional intelligence. Society assumes that IQ is everything that makes it as an indicator to measure the success of individuals. The 20th century culture put the importance of cognitive intelligence (Intellectual intelligence) as a basic factor for development (Stein & Book, 2002). In the development of the increasingly of the technology challenging and great competition at present, intellectual intelligence only are not able to guarantee or ensure the success of an individual without the existence of a balanced emotional intelligence and other skills. Actually IQ is not enough merely to say one person is clever, smart, brilliant, wise and successful in life. This is because at the same time, intellectual skills are not balanced with the management of emotions and conflicts that occur in the environmental factor. As a result, this can be seen in society today with few problems from the point of emergence of negative emotions such as extreme stress, anti-social and others problem consequence by not have good social and emotional management. Both of intellectual intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ) are important for an individual to success but one of it play a very important role in terms of achieve goal, socially competent in and understand the emotions or feelings of others.
Emotional intelligence (IQ) and intellectual intelligence (EQ) have different definitions that two types intelligence has the advantages. EQ and IQ can be distinguished through their definitions. According to David Wechsler (1975) in his book ‘Intelligence Defined and Undefined’, intelligence (IQ) as the ability overall cognitive activity in terms of whether to perception, store and recall memory, to reason, resolve and creativity. So in general, IQ is the ability to store knowledge, acquire knowledge and ability to use knowledge (Ma’rof Redzuan & Haslinda Abdullah, 2003). Back to emotional intelligence, Mayer and Salovey (1990), defines emotional intelligence as the subset of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor one’s own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions. Emotional intelligence also involved in the emotional capacity to anticipate and assimilation feelings associated with emotions, understanding emotions and managing information. They also concise EQ in five ability, there which ability to understand emotions, handle interpersonal relations well, use emotions to motivate themselves, recognize emotions of others and ability for the good managing emotional person. According to Goleman (1995), EQ as the ability to identify emotional self and others; motivate yourself; manage emotions well construction and relations between individuals. He was says there are four key items of EQ, there which self awareness, self management, social awareness and social skills (Leadership for Intelligence Professionals, 2010). In one study was conduct by Goleman shown that EQ contribute 80% to determine a individual success in life, while IQ just contribute 20% for success (Taylor, n.d.). The studies of Goleman show that EQ is greater predictor of individual success than IQ.
People with emotional intelligence (EQ) can achieve the goal of success higher than those who have higher intellectual intelligence (IQ). Item “self awareness” contained in the Goleman model of EQ help individuals understand and realize what goals to achieve. Besides that, people with EQ can use emotions to motivate themselves to achieve the goal. Emotional intelligence actually help us to achieve a desired goal of success, although we do not have a high IQ to achieve a high success, with the EQ at least one individual will have the nature of self-confidence and a high resistance to achieving goals success. People who have high EQ and low EQ are differences, person who have high level of EQ is an individual’s that can precede their own feeling and action, they also have resilient to achieve life goals and able to control their negative feeling. While the people who have low level of EQ are individuals tend to be following their feeling to act without think about the consequence. Usually this type of individuals also have the vague life goals and unskilled in managing their negative feeling (Hafiz Firdaus, 2005). One of aspect contained in EQ is mastery of vision refer on ability to set direction and vision guided by a strong personal philosophy. This ability or talent undertake as inner compass function to provide resilience and strength to overcome obstacles. Besides that, it undertake as inner motivator and guardian angel of individual purpose (Lynn, 2002). Normally individuals such as entrepreneurs who have high-quality EQ can be competitive and sensitive to the others needs, they also understand what it will achieve the goals and want to be able to manage themselves well. All these elements have been associated with the submitted by Goleman about self awareness.
EQ intelligence helps individuals to be competent in aspects of social and interpersonal relationships effectively. This is item “to handle interpersonal relations well” by Salovey & Mayer model and item “social skills” by Goleman model. Interpersonal relationships refer to the ability to create and maintain a mutually profitable relationship between the two parties who involved. This usually show through mutual give and receive feeling and have existence of emotional closeness (Stein & Book, 2002). This ability helps Individual can build a good relationship with the others like friend, family, and community. The effect is individual get satisfaction of a good relationship with another person and easy to received moral and social support from them. This environment factor can facilitate individual to achieve success. Relationships playing a role as mediators, moderators, interpreters, sources of feedback, sources of support, and permission to change and learn. Based on the Wheeler studies on 1999, she was found that relationships improved help person to work on their goals and plans (Ciarrochi & Mayer, 2007). According to Thomas Stanley, who is a writer “The Millionaire Mind”, he was running a collection of opinions of 733 millionaires from various fields in the United States. Revenue from the collection of opinions found that there are 30 factors that are considered the most major role in their success. Of the 30 success factors, the top five factors is characteristic of individuals who have emotional intelligence in terms of interpersonal relationships. The top five factors in this revenue are fair to all people, instilling discipline, good fellowship with others, have a husband or wife who is give support and work more actively than others (Stein & Book, 2002).
People with high EQ also can understand the emotions and feelings of others. This is item “to recognize emotions of others” by Salovey & Mayer model and item “social awareness” by Goleman model. Individuals who have EQ not only can understand their emotion, but also can recognize emotions of others. This situation also includes the skills to interpret the feelings of others or the ability of empathy. Goleman, who is book writer of “Working with Emotional Intelligence”, explain empathy is the ‘social radar’. He describe that empathy is ability to pick up another’s feeling without them having express a word and it can be huge advantage in the workplace setting (McBride & Maitland, 2002). In organization situation, EQ can maintain harmony relation among worker. The effect is they can work together to achieve the goal. For example employer or manager in a company that has EQ will tend to understand the emotions and feelings of his subordinates, he will attempt to provide motivation and make comfortable atmosphere in the working environment. In addition, he will try to strengthen collaboration between them. As a result, harmonious working environment will exist among employees and employers and they easy driven to achieve company goals. Goleman was emphasized that teamwork is key for achieving essential goals, bonds of collaboration and cooperation will help any units in organization more effectively (Maxwell, 2010). This is an advantage for empathy as a part of emotional intelligence. Deficits in EQ will bring some problems, people who have difficult problem to recognize emotion of other can make others feel discomfort and poorly. These types of individuals tend to be perceived as unconcern person and it effect is the others exclude this person (Salovey & Mayer, 1990).
To conclude, the emotional intelligence (EQ) is very important in assisting the success of an individual. Success in life is not solely caused by the intellectual intelligence (IQ), but emotional intelligence (EQ) also can bring the success, instead more to contribute the success of the individual. An individual who is have the high intellectual intelligence (IQ) levels are not necessarily good in the management of emotions, when he or she lack of emotional management, the effect is individuals with high IQ level is not likely to achieve success. Abilities contained in the emotional intelligence help individuals in terms of self-management and social management that involves positive relationships with others. One of the things that need to be emphasized here is how to improve emotional intelligence in our society on present. If these people look intellectual intelligence as a measure of success, now it’s time to open our society minds to consider emotional intelligence is the most important factor determining the success of an individual. Efforts to enhance emotional intelligence should be emphasized from the beginning. Perhaps in the future, the education system in Malaysia will introduce certain subjects or outdoor activities that can improve emotional intelligence of student.
Ciarrochi, J., & Mayer, J. D. (Eds.). (2007). Applying Emotional Intelligence. New York: Psychology Press.
Leadership Competencies. (2010, March). Leadership for Intelligence Professionals. Retrieved March –, 2010, from http://www.learntolead.net
Lynn, A. B. (2002). The Emotional Intelligence Activity Book. New York: HRD Press.
Hafiz Firdaus (Ed). (2005). Himpunan Risalah. Retrieved March –, 2010, from http://www.hafizfirdaus.com
Ma’rof Redzuan & Haslinda Abdullah. (2003). Psychology. (2nd ed). Universiti Putra Malaysia. Shah Alam: McGraw-Hill.
Maxwell, L. F. (2010). Emotional Intelligence: What Works at Work. Law Library Journal. Retrieved March –, 2010, from http://www.aallnet.org
McBride, P., & Maitland, S. (2002). The EI Advantage, Putting Emotional Intelligence into Practice. London: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Retrieved March –, 2010, from http://www.unh.edu
Stein, S. J., & Book, H. E. (2002). Ledakan EQ: 15 Prinsip Dasar Kecerdasan Emosional Meraih Sukses. (Trinanda Rainy Januarsari & Yudhi Murtanto, Trans.). Bandung: Kaifa Publishers. (Original work published 2000).
Taylor, A. R. (n.d.). EQ + IQ Enhances Success. Success Resources International. Retrieved March –, 2010, from http://www.arlenetaylor.org
A.Rahman A. N. (March, 2010).